Meantime, this article highlights seventeenth century Virginia Chandler immigrants other than the 1610 John from whom descent may have occurred. Twenty-nine Chandlers (male/female) are patentees or headrights in the land patent abstracts compiled by Nell Marion Nugent (through1700). A few more have been found in other sources.
In the February 1999 Chandler Family Association Newsletter (CFA), Harold Nelson Chandler (hereafter, Nelson) purported to identify sixty-six seventeenth century Chandlers who immigrated to America 1607-1699. Nelson is a CFA founder, researcher and writer. Despite some flaws that detract from the credibility of his article, he brings together in one place most of the identifiable seventeenth century Virginia importees, many of whom became immigrants. This is a very valuable tool for Virginia Chandler researchers.
Not everyone who came to Virginia was an “immigrant,” i.e., a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence. Nelson lists forty-two; however, some did not settle and others may be duplicates or combined. A misunderstanding or overstatement of what the listing of headrights prove has also created an overestimate of the number of immigrants; as has a failure to appreciate the extent of repeat crossings of the Atlantic. Finally, a lot of younger sons of the aristocracy and gentry (shut out from inheriting land at home) came to America with some money, prospered and returned to England – for example, Henry Meese, who came to America and acquired land here but eventually died in England.
The listing of a headright standing alone proves just one thing: A person bearing the headright name was, to county court satisfaction, transported into Virginia. But, as early as 1640 to induce settlers into York County, headrights were awarded to existing residents for moving into newly opened areas. Headrights seldom prove whether the patentee who redeemed the headright was the one who sponsored the headright, if the headright was indentured or free, if the headright remained in Virginia, or when he/she arrived.
Many headrights are duplicates. A patentee could exchange patent A for patent B, re-using the headrights. A patentee could forfeit a patent and sell the headrights to someone who re-patented that or another tract. Patentees often re-patented when adding land or to confirm land in the name of one who inherited it by intestacy. There were also fraudulent reuses of headrights.
Some Potential Seventeenth Century Virginia Chandler Ancestors
Of Nelson’s forty-two Virginians, ten were women. Of the men, ten are named John, five named William, three named Richard, two each named Arthur, Benjamin, Francis and Thomas, and one each named Alexander, Bartholomew, Daniel, George, Job and Nicholas. Some were just visitors – businessmen, family visitors or brief sojourners who returned to England or elsewhere. Samuel Chandler, not found by Nelson, stayed for years but returned to London. Nelson’s list, corrected, supplemented and analyzed by the present author, is the framework of the present report:
The chart below contains Chandlers listed in headrights and other documents 1607-1700. Some, but far from all, became immigrants (i.e., they established permanent residence).
[Editor’s note: The identifying dates in the chart below and elsewhere on this page indicate the date the immigrant is believed to have arrived in America.]
This exercise demonstrates that many seventeenth-century Virginia head-rights do not represent new immigrants. It also illustrates that the date of arrival versus the dates of lands patented, and the county in which headright land was located versus the actual area in which the headrights themselves settled cannot be determined without independent, corroborating evidence. Neither is the absence of the identification of a headright designation, standing alone, proof that any particular person was born in Virginia.
Only ten of the fifty or so Chandlers identified as headrights and other sources are known to have settled for life or remained for some years in Virginia: John 1610, Arthur 1623/1650, Thomas 1620/1628, Samuel 1637, Job 1648, Bartholomew 1662, Thomas 1683, John and Margaret 1669, William 1685 and John 1690. Of these, only John 1610, Job 1648, Thomas 1683 and John and Margaret 1669 are known to have left children and other lineal descendants.
It should be noted that three Chandler men who remained in Virginia are known to have left no descendants, they are: Thomas 1620/1628, Bartholomew 1662 and William 1685. George 1635 is known to have only been visiting, probably business and pleasure, and returned to England almost immediately, where he died c. 1669.
Evidence also suggests that several others returned to England (or went to other colonies abroad) leaving no descendants in America: Samuel 1637, Elias 1638/9, Daniel 1650, Nicholas 1651, Richard 1651, Richard 1667 and Elias 1662.
Several, in fact many of the headrights as named, were almost certainly for return passage to Virginia by natives or previous immigrants who had made trips to England for business, pleasure or education. This was quite common for seventeenth-century Virginians in the merchant and higher socio-economic classes.
It is hoped this exercise will encourage persons who have not yet found their immigrant Chandler ancestor to continue to search, and add to the history of the Chandler family in Virginia. The author also hopes that this exercise will help other researchers separate documented facts from conjecture.
1 At the time of writing, the author was Federal Legislative Counsel in the Washington, DC office of the Governor of North Carolina. He graduated from St. Andrews Presbyterian College with a degree in history and from the School of Law of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Additions, corrections and suggestions for improvement based upon sound evidence are always appreciated at #926, Alexandria, VA 22314 or by e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org).
2 See Joseph Barron Chandler, Jr., six articles- Parts I-VI in Tidewater Virginia Families (TVF), August/September 2000 through February/March 2003; Chandler Family Association Newsletter 1991-present; Irene Chandler Miller, Our Joseph Chandler of Caswell County, Volumes I-IV (1988,1992,1997,2000) published by the author, 9712 Mirage Circle, Garden Grove, CA, and Miller, The Other Joseph Chandler of Georgia, 1750-1822. 1987.
3 Chandler TVF II. 10 (2001):8-18; III. 11 (2002):3-11; IV. 11(2002):79-88;VI (illegible)
4 Chandler TVF V. 11 (2002):146-154.
5 Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume I. (1934) (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., rep. 1974); Volumes II and III (Richmond: Virginia State Library 1977, 1979)
6 The Chandler Family Association was formally established January 1, 1991. It publishes the CFA Newsletter three times a year. CFA is in the process of placing a complete set of its Newsletter in selected genealogical/archival state libraries, including Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and Texas.
7 Harold Nelson Chandler, “Chandlers Who Immigrated to America 1607-1699” in Chandler Family Association Newsletter. (Lakeland, FL: CFA) XI 1 (1999):1-37
8 Nelson’s article actually covered only three colonies – Virginia, Maryland and Massachusetts – and New England generically. He failed to differentiate among the quality of his sources. For instance, he used a Halbert’s publication for at least 31 of his 66 immigrants, giving it equal weight with the professional works of Nugent, Coldham and Hotten (see note 19). He did not use Adventurers of Purse and Person 1607-1624/5 (see also note 19), or its prior iterations – an essential research tool. He also drew unsupported conclusions that may mislead researchers. Among these are the assumptions that most of the subjects were “born in England,” that there is “no further information” about them, that each was new to America, that they were imported into the counties where the land lay for which they were used as headrights and that they were all “immigrants.” Among the omitted Chandlers are George and Jane of New Castle County, DE, the 1686 immigrant ancestors of what may be the largest Chandler family in the United States.
9 Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition. (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated 1993) 580.
10 Henry Meese came to Virginia c. 1650, acquired land, became a Colonel of the militia and a Burgess. He was back in London by 1669 where he died between writing his will January 12, 1681/2 will and the probation dated April 5, 1682. In it he disposed of his estate in England and Virginia. Peter Wilson Coldham, American Wills Proved in London. (Baltimore- Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1992) 33.
11 Nugent I, xxiii-xxvi. As a prerequisite for applying for a patent based upon headrights, one was required to obtain a certificate from the county court that the headright had been proved in open court. See the reference to Thomas Chandler’s certificate, Nugent I,264.
12Headright receipts (signed by a ship captain or other importer) and court certificates were negotiable instruments. Those who paid for the importation of a headright included investors on both sides of the Atlantic as pre-transport sponsors. Others purchased from captains who had borne the expense of filling out their ships’ capacities, importers and the occasional planter or businessman who bought headrights for resale or redemption. An exceedingly small number of patents include additional information about their headrights, such as the June 24,1635 Adam Thorowgood patent, which lists the headrights by the year and ship on which he had paid for their transport toVirginia. Nugent I, 22-23.
13Obviously a headright entered Virginia prior to the date of the patent in which he/she is redeemed, but some were held for decades before redemption. Francis Mason arrived in 1613 (1624/5 Muster), but did not redeem the headrights he acquired for himself and his family and servants until August 31, 1642.Nugent I,134.
14 See three successive patents to Edward Tunstall, Nugent I,111 134 144.
15 Nugent II, 37.
16 Jennings Cropper Wise, Ye Kingdome of Accamacke. (Richmond: Bell Book and Stationery Co., 1911) 107; The 1691 will of Richard Chandler, citizen and haberdasher of London, Canterbury Wills 1691, Public Record Office, London left a substantial bequest to Edward, son of my late brother Samuel of London.
17 Alexander Brown, The First Republic in America. (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1898) 466 et seq.; I.G.I., British Isles, christened May 3, 1603 at Holy Trinity the Less, London; Chandler, Part I, 75 and n. 9, 86-93. The unsupported claim, first advanced in what is known as the “1931 Typescript Genealogy,” stated that Richard was the father of four sons (John, Thomas, Arthur and George) who came to Virginia to claim their father’s estate. This claim is still circulating among some Chandler families and is indiscriminately posted on the Internet.
18 Percival Boyd, Register of Apprentices and Freemen of the Drapers Company, (manuscript held bv the Drapers Company, London); Original Hampshire Wills 1633. Of George’s four sons, only Richard was missing from his father’s 1633 will, which also did not mention a widow or children of Richard. As the second of five sons, Richard was the logical choice to succeed to George’s mercantile enterprise in London (Thomas, oldest son, was already managing the family farms in Hampshire). Third son, William was at Oxford preparing for the clergy, while George the younger was only 15 in March 1621/2.
19 John Camden Hotten, The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Who Went from England to the American Plantations 1600-1700. (1874) (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., reprint, 1974). 177, 219; Virginia M. Meyer and John Frederick Dorman, Editors, Adventurers of Purse and Person 1607-1624/5, Third Edition. (1956) (Richmond: Order of First Families of Virginia 1607-1624/5, The Dietz Press, 1987) 26.
20 I.G.I., British Isles; Robert Hume, Early Child Immigrants to Virginia 1618-/642. (Baltimore: Magna Carta Book Company, 1986) 27; Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants 1607-1660. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1987) viii, 10,18, 39, 57.
21 Nugent I, 203, 334.
22 Nugent I, 22, 264.
23 Beverley Fleet, Colonial Virginia Abstracts, Volume III. (c.1949) (Baltimore: Genealogies Publishing Co., Inc., reprint 1988). 28, 36.
24 Hotten 95.
25 Boyd, supra. George the younger had succeeded to his father’s seat in the Drapers “by patrimony” in 1631 and was no doubt visiting/investigating his interests in Virginia in 1635.
26 Nugent I, 97, 128, 159.
27 Susie M. Ames, Ed., County Court Records of Accomack-Northampton, Virginia, 1632-1690 (Washington, DC: American Historical Association 1954), 87, William Stone as power-of-attorney collected a debt due Samuel; Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia’s Eastern Shore (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith 1968) 14, 16 n. 5. Jennings Cropper Wise wrote that Job was “brother of a London merchant who had lived in Northampton County.” Ye Kingdome of Accamacke (Richmond: The Bell Book and Stationery Co.) 107.
28 In Virginia 1637 (n. 2), in London 1639-1641 (n. 5 and numerous London tobacco importation records found in the Colonial Records Project in the Virginia Archives), in Virginia 1641 (n. 5), in London 1643 (n. 9), in Virginia 1646 (n. 7). No record of his death, land ownership or of any estate has yet been found in Virginia, Maryland or England.
29 Harry Wright Newman, Seigniory in Early Maryland (Baltimore: Descendants of Lords of the Maryland Manors 1949) 64; Maryland Patents Liber 6, Folio 475. Richard undoubtedly named the property “Stratford Manor” for his hometown.
30 H. R. Mellwaine, Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia (Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library 1979) 499; Lyon G. Tyler, Ed., William and Mary Quarterly, 1st Series (Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co. 1977), 156; Nugent I, 163. It was also in Accomack County that Samuel and 1610 John recorded a bond on February 17, 1639/40 for settlement of a business transaction to be concluded at the office of Thomas Stone in London. Ames I, 163.
31 Ames II, 237.
32 Howard Mackey and Marlene Alma Hinkley Groves, Northampton County, Virginia Record Book 1645-1651(Rockport, ME: Picton Press 2000) 198.
33 Prerogative Court of Canterbury (PCC) Wills 1691, Folio 186 (Richard); Ibid. 1693, Folio 5 (Winnifred). Richard and John were buried in St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury, London, where monumental busts were erected to their memories. The family had business interests in Barbados, the Summer Isles [properly, Somers Isles] (Bermudas) and elsewhere in the Caribbean as well as Virginia and Maryland.
34 Index of Freemen of the Grocers Company 1345-1645 (London: John R. Freeman and Co., microfilm, n.d., n.p., 1643 section). Daniel James was Samuel’s sponsor. The same year, Thomas Colclough, whose brother George resided in Accomack, became a Grocer’s apprentice. W.G. Stanard, Some Emigrants to Virginia (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. rep 1979). 24.
35 Ames I, 138; I.G.I., British Isles.
36 Nugent I, 128.
37 Alice Granberry Walter, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia Court Records (Baltimore: Clearfield Co. ca. 1994), Book B, 40, 52.
38 Beverly Fleet, Virginia Colonial Abstract, Volume III (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1988 reprint) 434; Nugent I, 273.
39 Lower Norfolk County Record Book C, 155. Such gifts were common as in William Davis’ bequest to godson William Chandler. Chandler, Part II, TVF May/June 2001.
40 John Frederick Dorman, “Inquisitions on Escheated Land 1665-1676” in The Virginia Genealogist, Volume 20, No. 2 (Washington, DC: J. F. Dorman 1976) 115-116; Nugent 1, 28, 156; Nugent II. 110, 202. Worster’s patent dated May 22, 1637, is missing. See also Chandler, Part I, TVF August/September 2000.
41 Chandler, Part IV, TVF August/September 2002, 79-81. This John died less than two months later.
42 Lydia Sparacio Bontempo and Alex Sparacio Dickman, Virginia County Court Records, Deed and Will Abstracts of Northumberland County 1711-1712 (Springfield, VA: Antient Press 2002) 30-32; Charles and Virginia Hamrick, Northumberland County, Virginia Court Order Book Part Two 1706-1713 (Athens, GA: Iberian Publishing Company c. 2002) 84-85. Daniel “of Elizabeth City” sold 400- and 700-acre parts of the 1500-acre tract to Richard Smith January 22, 1673/4. Smith sold the 700 acres to James Nipper/Nepper June 20, 1677. He sold the 350-acre tract to Peter Cantanceau (a/k/a Coutanceau), the subject of litigation in 1707.
43 Lower Norfolk County Record Book A, 90; Nugent 1, 179.
44 Ames II, 339, Job witnessed a contract among his brother Samuel, William Shrimpton, Richard Stone, John Holloway and Richard Hawley. Shrimpton was co-executor and beneficiary in the will of Lady Elizabeth Dale, widow of Sir Thomas Dale, Virginia Governor 1611-1616). Richard Stone was a nephew of Thomas Stone, London associate of Job’s brothers Richard and Samuel.
45 Howard Mackey and Marlene Alma Hinkley Groves, Northampton County, Virginia Record Book (1645-1651)(Rockport, ME: Picton Press 2000) 181-2.
46 Edgar I. Fripp, Shakespeare: Man and Artist, Volume II (London: Oxford University Press 1938), 785, 811, 871 et seq. (contained some about William’s origin, the identification of first son William and other details, about which see Chandler, TVF August/September 2000, 86-7, n. 123 and the Holy Trinity Registers; Registers of Holy Trinity Church, Stratford. Richard’s mother was Elizabeth Quiney, a cousin of Shakespeare, but the mother of Job and his other full siblings is unknown.
47 Registers of the Haberdashers at Haberdashers’ Hall and the Guild Hall, London. Perhaps his stepfather Thomas Greene (a London attorney among whose clients were the City of Stratford and his cousin William Shakespeare) facilitated the sponsorship and otherwise promoted his stepsons as London merchants. Richard established himself “at the sign of the Pelican in Ladd Lane and Aldermanbury Street” near the Guild Hall, where he and brother John resided and maintained their office until John’s death in 1686. Richard died in 1691. A Collection of the Names of the Merchants Living in and about the City of London (London: Samuel Lee 1677) “C” list; Christian E. Hauer and William Q. Young, A Comprehensive History of the London Church and Parish of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury: the Phoenix of Aldermanbury (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press 1994) 395-6; Thomas Wright, Esq. A New History of London and Westminster (London: George White 1831) 475; Pierson Cathrick, The History of the Church and Parish of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury (London: W. H. & L. Collingridge 1913).
48 William Hand Browne, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland 1648-1655 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society 1885) 263-4. Ca. 1648-51, many religious Dissenters moved from Virginia to Maryland where Baltimore’s religious liberty policies gave relief from the heavy-handed Established Church in Virginia. A new house and Job’s life were remembered in a ceremony at Chandler’s Hope on October 9, 2001 in which the present author participated. Anne married Maryland Attorney General Thomas Burford. Their descendants will be revealed in a future article.
49 Nugent I. 182; Fleet III. 94, three of the six headrights in a May 25, 1648 York County certificate.
50 Nugent I, 190.
51 Nugent I, 275.
52 Nugent I, 257.
53 I.G.I., British Isles.
54 Joanne McRee Sanders, Barbados Records: Marriages 1643-1800. (Houston: Sanders Historical Publications 1982).20; Sanders, Barbados Records: Baptisms 1637-1800. (Baltimore Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1984). 4, 9, 11. Barbados was an early Caribbean outpost with extensive commercial and family ties with Virginia families.
55 Library of Virginia, Survey Report No. 04199 (Richmond: Library of Virginia 1960).
56 Nugent I, 257.
57 Nelson cites “Record of First Settlers 1654-1663, published (in) Baltimore 1998, p. 59,” but the present author has not been able to identify this source.
58 Peter Wilson Coldham reports four more Chandlers traveling to Virginia – George 1635 (p. 152) in The Complete Book of Emigrants 1607-1660 (Baltimore 1987: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.) and Thomas 1660 (p. 131), Timothy 1670 (p. 266) and Mary 1684 (p. 364) in The Bristol Registers of Servants Sent to Foreign Plantations 1654-1686 (Baltimore 1988: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.) – not reported by Nelson and of whom there is no evidence of arrival in Virginia. The present author elects not to include those persons among possible Virginia immigrants. George’s return to London was revealed in the present author’s article in TVF, November/December 2000, 141.
59 JoAnn Riley McKey, Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts, Volume 3: 1671-1673 (Bowie. MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 1996) 48.
60 Original will, PCC Wills 1655, folio 326.
61 Nugent II, 348. Samuel Matthews, Virginia Governor 1677-8 acquired thousands of acres in several counties. Many of his headrights were probably for persons coming to Virginia for curiosity, vacation, family visits, research or on business and did not remain in the colony. Northumberland records do not show a resident Chandler there in the remainder of the seventeenth century.
62 Chandler. Part IV.
63 Nugent II, 102.
64 Nugent II, 136. Bartholomew’s headright was redeemed more than a decade after it was earned. Many land patents, especially ones of 1000+ acres, included headrights accumulated over many years. A John Chandler was among the headrights for 2665 acres he acquired. Headrights were acquired in many ways, thus it is erroneous to assume that most headrights became indentured servants, that they were imported by the persons in whose patents they appear or that they settled in the county of any particular patent.
65 He witnessed a power-of-attorney on September 6, 1661 (Fleet III, 252-3), a bond on August 31. 1663 (Benjamin B. Weisiger Henrico County, Virginia Deeds 1677-1705 [Richmond, VA: Rocky Ridge Press 1986] 145) and appeared as a headright a second time November 29, 1674 (Nugent II, 159), perhaps returning from a trip abroad. He is also referenced post-mortem in transactions in 1709, 1718 and 1731. Weisiger, Henrico County. Virginia Deeds 1706-1737 (Richmond, VA: Rocky Ridge Press 1985) 20, 70, 115.
66 Nugent II, 374.
67 Weisiger 1677-1705, 44, 49.
68 Weisiger 1677-1705, 28.
69 Bartholomew undoubtedly did business with Randolph, Byrd and Robert Mumford, who operated a trading empire ranging from the Blue Ridge to Spanish Florida near St. Augustine.
70 Maryland Archives xlix, 12; Henry C. Peden, Jr., Maryland Deponents 1634-1799 (Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications 1991), 31.
71 I.G.I. British Isles, father Elias Chandler m. (1) Katherine Coventry on November 9, 1625 and (2) Rebecca Field, July 20, 1629, both at St. Dunstan, Stepney, London. His siblings were Mary (1626), Mary (1629), Amy (1632), Anne (1635), Charity (1637) and Anne (1643).
72 JoAnn Riley McKey, Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts 1663-1666 (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 1996) 2.
73 Coldham 1607-1660, 428. One suspects Francis 1654 was delayed and finally sent in 1659.
74 G. Andrews Moriarty “Ancestry of William Chandler of Roxbury, Massachusetts” in New England Historical and Genealogical Register (Boston: NEHGR 1931) 140-I.
75 Nugent II, 24, 44.
76 Coldham 1607-1660, 434.
77 Nugent II, 22.
78 Nugent II, 20.
79 Chandler, Part II.
80 Since Bartholomew died without heirs making a claim to his very valuable 1238 acres, it seems likely William predeceased him, or returned to England and failed to claim Bartholomew’s land.
81 Halbert’s Book of Chandlers. ‘Chandler Immigrants and Worldwide Descendants’. Halbert’s Family Heritage. 1989. Appendix A, Early Chandler Immigrants. Parent company NUMA. Halberts, Inc., now defunct for misrepresentation of publication.
82 Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume II. (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1977). 165; Joseph Chandler, Tidewater Virginia Families, Vol. II, No 2 Pt IV (2002) 82.
83 Nugent II, 171.
84 Nugent II, 186.
85 Nugent II, 199.
86 W. Preston Haynie, Records of Indentured Servants and Certificates for Land, Northumberland County, Virginia 1650-1795. (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1996) 139; Augusta B. Fothergill, Wills of Westmoreland County, Virginia 1654-1800. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co Inc., 1973) 84.
87 Ellen Goode Winslow, History of Perquimans County. (Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton Co., 1931), 1-3; Wynette Parks Haun, Perquimans County, North Carolina Court Minutes 1738-1754 (Durham, NC: W. P. Haun, c. 1987) 31-34, items 67-71; North Carolina State Archives. Raleigh, Loose Estate Files: Benjamin Chandler 1733; Nugent I, 501; Land Patent Book (PB) 5.330; William Walter Hening, The Statutes at Large, Volume I. (Richmond, VA: Whittet & Shepperson, 1969 reprint) 528; William L. Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina. (Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Company, 1993) xxxii, 20, 66-67, 152, 355-356; Mrs. Watson (Ellen Goode) Winslow, History of Perquimans County. (Baltimore: Regional Publishing Company, 1974) 113-114, 128, 130, 167, 199, 223; Margaret M. Hofmann, Province of North Carolina 1663-1729, Abstracts of Land Patents. (Weldon, NC: The Roanoke News Company, 1979) 37, (#392).
88 JoAnn Riley McKey, Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1996), Volumes 7, 8,9, 10, 13, 14; Stratton Nottingham, Abstracts of Wills and Administrations of Accomack County, Virginia 1663-1800 (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 231 1990) 87 (WB 1,296).
89 Nugent II, 279, 365.
90 Haynie, 139; Fothergill, 90; John Frederick Dorman, Westmoreland County, Virginia Order Book 1690-1698. (Washington, DC: J. F. Dorman, 1964), 63; Ruth and Sam Sparacio, Deed and Will Abstracts of Westmoreland County, Virginia 1734-1736. (McLean VA- The Antient Press 1995), 97.
91 Nugent II, 325.
92 Joseph B. Chandler, “John Chandler, 1610 Immigrant and Some of His Descendants: Part IV.” Tidewater Virginia Families: A Magazine of History and Genealogy. Vol.11 No.2 (2002) 79-88
93 Nugent II, 332; Chandler, Part IV, 79.14.
94 Chandler, Part IV, 84.
95 Nugent II, 362.
96 Nugent II, 397; Chandler, Part II, 83-84.